The primary function of any fuel system is to store fuel & provide it to the engine whenever required. The fuel system typically comprises of fuel tanks, pumps, filters, lines, and injectors. Each component in the system plays a vital role in the performance of the engine. Fuel is mixed with air, atomized and vaporized in the air intake system. It can then be compressed in the engine cylinder and ignited to produce energy. The fuel systems may differ for various engines but the principle mechanism remains the same, that is, supplying fuel to the IC and regulating the flow of fuel w.r.t. air.
Diesel Fuel System
The fuel system supplies, transfers, cleans and delivers fuel to the engines’ cylinders to enable combustion, thereby producing power. The fuel system is responsible to meter the exact amount of fuel and deliver the fuel to the injector assembly with precise timing. As the fuel is delivered, the final conditions for providing complete combustion are atomization and the spray pattern of the fuel.
Multiple Functions of the Fuel
Diesel fuel exposed to the right amount of air is the primary energy source of a diesel engine. Diesel fuel specifications ensure it meets the necessary requirements for providing the correct amount of power, regardless of temperature and operating conditions. While the correct amount and timing of diesel fuel injection is necessary for optimum power, the fuel has several other key roles which include cooling, lubricating & cleaning.
- Cooling: Constant motion creates heat in the engine body. The fuel flowing through the injection pump circulates through the pump and absorbs the unwanted heat that is generated by the engine, akin to an engine coolant. Eventually, the heat is dissipated from the system. In this context, the fuel assists in the cooling mechanism.
- Lubricate: Diesel naturally has lubricating properties. It lubricates the moving components of both the fuel transfer pump and the fuel injection pump assembly. Lubrication with fuel is crucial to reduce the unwanted wear of the fuel system components to ensure longer service intervals.
- Cleaning: The fuel travelling from the fuel tank to the fuel system picks up dirt and dust on its way and delivers them to the fuel filtration components where the contaminants are removed. Cleaning the fuel system components ensures a long, trouble-free engine life.
Diesel is evidently much more than just fuel and performs various support functions to keep the fuel system efficient. As such, the fuel collects a lot of contaminants while performing its duties. Hence, to maintain the proper functioning of the fuel system, the fuel itself must be clean and free of impurities such as dirt, dust, metal particles, water etc. This is where a fuel filter helps. A fuel filter is located in the fuel line to screen out contaminants such as dirt, dust, debris and rust particles from the fuel. A fuel filter protects the critical parts of the engine, by filtering out foreign particles that can potentially damage a fuel injector. Now injectors are pretty expensive to replace, so you don’t want to cause them damage just because you didn’t replace a fuel filter on time. So make sure you practice timely replacement of your filters. And while you are at it, ensure that you buy filters only from reliable OEMs. Fleetguard is one such trusted automobile filter manufacturers in India implementing the best practices and delivering complete solutions to all your filtration needs.