Tag Archives: engine coolant

Engine Coolants Basics and Its Classification

Engine Coolants Basics and Its Classification

Engine coolant is used to remove heat produced by the engine and transfer it into the cooling system. The coolant receives the heat and circulates it through the radiator, dissipating it back into the atmosphere. A thermostat is used to regulate the temperature of the coolant during the circulation. Although it sounds like a simple process, it is a rather crucial one. Coolant technology serves an extremely important purpose of maintaining the engine. To understand the gravity of cooling systems, a typical heavy duty cooling system circulates the equivalent of a 16,000-litre swimming pool worth of coolant every hour.

In order to regulate the engine temperature, the coolant performs other support functions such as protection from corrosion, cavitation, and scales, that commonly appear in heavy-duty diesel engines. A coolant filter is used to keep the coolant pure. The chemical combination of coolants ensure that it does not react to the many surfaces comes in contact with while maintaining the engine temperature. According to research, 40% of all engine related problems surface due to incompetent cooling systems. Thus, selecting your coolant is of prime importance.

Classification of Coolants

Determining the right engine coolant for your application could be confusing. One of the selection parameters can be colour. However, many manufacturers do not use standard colour conventions and the coolants with the same colour may have different properties. Hence, knowledge of coolant classification can help in distinguishing coolants from one another. They are typically classified based on performance and product type.

The performance generally refers to the measured performance of the coolant when tested according to industry standards or OEM specifications. This test also determines the chemical compatibility of coolant with cooling system materials. The American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM, has developed tests that are commonly used in the coolant industry.

ASTM D3306 and ASTM D6210 are one of the most commonly applied industry standards in use today. ASTM D3306 contains numerous tests stating the requirements for light-duty coolants. The specification measures key coolant attributes like freezing & boiling points. This test also contains performance requirements that evaluate the corrosion protection of coolant under different conditions and against water pump cavitation.

The ASTM D6210 includes tests of D3306, as well as additional testing that evaluates the performance of the coolant for heavy duty applications. The primary additional requirements test the ability of the coolant to protect against cavitation of wet liners, as well as the ability to protect hot surfaces against scale. When choosing a Heavy Duty coolant, it is crucial to look for an indication that the coolant meets the 6210 standards.

Coolants can also be classified based on product type. Typically type classifications are generic terms that are related to the base type and additives used in the coolant. Although these terms can be useful in the general classification of coolant, coolants within each type will vary in composition and performance.

Conventional, Hybrid and OAT Coolants

Coolants contain additives which are added to the product to protect from corrosion, cavitation, and scale. Based on the type of additives, coolants are classified as
1. Conventional
2. Hybrid
3. OAT – Organic additive technology

Each type of coolant has one of the above as their base category.
1. Conventional Coolants

• Oldest additive technology
• Lowest initial cost
• Short service intervals
• Shortest overall life

2.Hybrid Coolants

• Old + organic additive technology
• Longer service intervals
• Short overall life
• More maintenance required than OAT

3. OAT Coolants

• Newest type of additive chemistry
• Lesser service interval
• Longest overall life
• Fewest maintenance requirement

When choosing and maintaining your coolant, be sure to look at the service interval and maintenance interval of the product. Fleetguard is one of the leading Coolant and Filter Manufacturers in India.

Importance and Working of Coolants in Heavy Duty Vehicles

Fleetguard Working of Coolants in Heavy Duty Vehicles

Engine Coolant is a generic term used to describe fluids that remove excess heat from engine. An integral part of all HDV engines, the engine coolant remove excess heat from the Internal combustion engine by transferring heat into the atmosphere via the radiator. It maintains the temperature of the engine, thereby preventing major mechanical failures. The chemical composition of coolants have anti-freezing and anti-rust properties which protects the engine from oxidation, corrosion, pitting, scaling & plugging ensuring uptime of the equipment.

Composition of a Coolant

Coolant is primarily a mixture of de-ionized water, glycol (mainly ethylene glycol or propylene glycol) and chemical additives. It is incumbent to select a coolant according to your requirement. The choice depends on the kind of environment and temperatures the engine is frequently exposed to. In a hot climate, an ideal coolant protects itself from boiling off into air due to overheat and in a cold climate, it does not freeze. At least 40% of the engine problems are due to lack of sufficient cooling.

Types of Coolants:

Depending on the usage and applications, there are at least 3 types of coolants used in heavy duty vehicle engines. They are as follows

1. Traditional Coolant
These are the regular or conventional coolants having corrosion inhibiting properties that protect the metals such as steel, aluminum and copper from corrosion. In heavy duty engines, this coolant provides excellent protection against wet sleeve liner corrosion. These coolants are typically found in green or purple color. The corrosion inhibitors in the coolant have faster depletion rate and hence a limited lifespan.

2. OAT Coolant
OAT or Organic Acid Technology are silicate free and long life coolants. Unlike the traditional coolants, the carboxylate acid corrosion inhibitors used in them have very low depletion rates. Hence, frequent periodical fueling of Supplemental Coolant Additives is not required and one refill can often be used over the engine’s lifetime. They are typically red or orange in color. It also provides an outstanding protection of aluminum at high temperatures.

3. Hybrid Coolant
This coolant technology combines the benefits offered by traditional corrosion inhibitor technology and combines this with the benefits of OAT corrosion inhibitor technology. This coolant is found typically in yellow and red color. They are used in both light and heavy duty diesel applications. This hybrid technology is also referred to as HOAT technology.

Apart from the coolants, coolant filter are integrated in the automotive system to protect the coolants from external contaminants and clear them off the internal ones. They are also used to add chemicals such as SCA, to the coolant to recharge it’s resources which get depleted over time. If you are looking for the right solutions for your engine, It is better to purchase filters only from verified and known automotive filter manufacturers.

Why Coolant is Important in Heavy Duty Engines?

Coolants are used because simply water is not appropriate. The property of water makes it boil and evaporate at high temperatures and freeze at low temperatures, hence defeating the purpose of a coolant. Coolants are specifically designed to sustain extreme temperatures thereby protecting the heavy duty engines. It maintains the temperature using efficient heat transfer without which the engine would either freeze or burn out. Also, the anti-corrosion property of the coolants save the metal components of the engine from getting corroded and oxidized. Without an efficient cooling mechanism, the lifespan and efficiency of the engine will be reduced.